Surkhandarya region is located in the most southern part of Uzbekistan, its territory belongs to the arid subtropical climate zone. This region differs from other regions due to the large number of sunny days and warm weather. As a result, agricultural products ripen earlier. Surkhandarya is a region that plays a special role in the political, administrative and social life of Uzbekistan.
Surkhandarya oasis is famous for its invaluable contribution to the development of human culture as one of the centers of world civilization. Surkhandarya valley is described as the site of the first primitive human settlement. Remains of primitive human settlements of the Middle Paleolithic period have been found in Boysun ridges. The bones of an 8-9-year-old boy who lived in the Stone Age was found in Teshiktash area. This finding is well -known worldwide as “Neanderthal man”.
Surkhandarya is famous for its ancient history, unique culture and historical monuments. In this oasis, the famous poets, scholars and bakhshis (bakhshi is a national singer who can play national musical instruments and sing a song in the national style) have gathered since ancient times. On this land, folklores and written literatures were developed. In Old Termez, the Islamic theorist, muhaddith al-Hakim at-Tirmizi was born and dedicated his life to develop Islamic knowledge and share with Muslim communities (8th -9th centuries). The great (Spanish) Islamic scholar Muhyiddin ibn al-Arabi from Andalusia (1165-1240) considered himself a disciple of Hakim Tirmizi. Imam al-Tirmizi has compiled a number of works based on the hadiths (the hadith is the narration of the words, deeds, and confessions of Muhammad (pbuh). It is the second most important source in Islam after the Qur’an. These include Al-Jami ‘as Sahih or Sunani al-Tirmidhi, Kitab al-Alilal, Kitab az-Zuhd, and others.
In Surkhandarya region, total 359 historical iconic landmarks are preserved, 294 are in archeology, 26 in architecture and 39 in monumental arts. For the 2500th anniversary of the city of Termez, a number of historical and archeological monuments were restored in the region between 2001-2002. These monuments are famous for their antiquity. For instance, a famous Jarqurghon Tower (12th century), Sultan Saodat complex (10th -17th centuries), the remains of Chaghaniyon state fortress in Denau (15th century), Hakim at Termizi complex (11th-15th centuries), the ramains of Zurmala tower in old Termez (2nd centuary), Kokildor khanaqah (16th century) around Termez and so many more.